Facebook marketing cheat sheet

If your marketing involves a variety of mediums from articles to pictures and even video, Facebook is the ideal platform for you. However, marketing each medium and for individual industry might differ. Here are some of the cheat sheets we have gathered thus far.



Word, Pictures, Video

After you mastered article, infographics and video, then you can rule the world!


In order to do well on Facebook itself, posting daily is your best bet. This is mainly because we will check facebook around 3-4 times a day and fans who have liked your page would at least love to see 1 update from you daily or else you will simply keep falling down their news feed and that means lesser attention on your brand. However, going all in on 1 medium is a dangerous affair so the idea is to only create a different medium for a content that does exceptionally well. Article marketing is by far the cheapest and most beneficial due to its SEO properties in creating your credibility online. Once an article do take off, change it into a infographic for easier content digestion and if that does well too, then move to add emotions into the article and turn it into a video. It is also more justifiable for your superior to see escalation for the content when it is doing well.



Golden hour

Upload in the morning sweet spot to take advantage of visibility throughout the day


To expose most or all of your fans to the content you create daily, it is key to be posting at key timings. However, the fallacy is to only post where you get the most amount of views at a certain period of the day. Unfortunately, that could do your brand more harm than justice. Take for instance our Facebook Page. We get most of our fans during 8-10pm. If we were to launch during that time, the views from the rest of the day will disappear mainly because our demographics are in Singapore and Malaysia and nocturnal time is from 10pm to 8am. Our article will then fall through the cracks to oblivion and lose the other 40% of our viewers from 8am to 8pm for all our medium; not a very clever thing to do. We arrived with the best time being 8am due to the morning rush hour and releasing earlier at 7 will result in no engagement to your first tier of fans at 8am, making it disappear below the news feed as well. 9am isn’t ideal due to the starting time for most office workers and our target audience.


Buy ads only for the superstar

If only it was this simple


Every once in a while, a content will become highly sought after, be it our plans or not. This means that since our small pool of fans actually love this piece, introducing it to a bigger base will have a multiplier effect to it. However, the mistake most marketers make is that they buy post from the start to boost the visibility, resulting in poorly engaged post as well as raising the tide for average or poor content as well (as much as we wish all content we create is on point, not all are).



Hopefully your content don’t look like this


In this fast paced world we live in, it is not only important to create evergreen editorial post but also create relevant content that is trending for that time. It shows relevance and how connected we are to the news of the world and leveraging on the keywords spikes that more people will search that day. However, be aware of which article are classified as trend riding pieces and don’t be too quick to boost those post because of the high numbers as well. The sudden spike in the keywords for that article will most likely not stay for the next time when your “boosted post” is pushed onto the limelight. This will result in you getting unnecessary heartache when you see the “boosted post” results in less than expected results.


Always boost from the low tier

Do it like a Pyramid, start with the lowest tier first


When it comes to boosting, always take the cheapest option (or the smallest pool). The reason for doing so is because it allows you to maintain consistency which makes tracking easier. The other reason is to gradually grow the appetite for the well liked post to more people only when your aspiration and the current results line up in sync with each other. This is responsible media buying even though it could take a while to get there.



Buy ad for your page

This should be the most seen ad for your target audience


In order to see consistent growth and serve a bigger market, buy ads for your page instead of for your post. People who are keen to learn more about your brand will like your page first, converting them to your potential 1st tier customers you can speak to. The bigger this 1st tier customer is, the better sense you will get for what content works and what content does not. Buying ads for your page also allows your company to become more visible to your target audience and prolonged exposure will help you convert the toughest thing a customer can do in the digital age, subscribe to your update by liking your page.

Youtube marketing cheat sheet

In order to be seen and maximise the approach of video, Youtube is the most ideal platform there is. Here is a breakdown on what to do for your Youtube videos to get the most amount of impact and conversions.




Depending on the budget as well as what you need to say, make sure to structure your videos to be uploaded at the same time either weekly or daily. This habit allows your loyal customers to keep coming back for more as well as let you determine which time or day is the best in getting traction on your videos.





The general guideline is that a Youtube video should not be more than 3 minutes long but it is best to think about it to be below 4 minutes instead. Youtube is meant for 2 purpose, entertainment and education on the go and the more aligned you are with catering it for mobile usage, the more you will find your traction on your website growing. However, Youtube is not like its fast counterpart Facebook where people need to consume media in the shortest form needed. Most viewers that go to Youtube expects a certain amount of substance in the video so make sure to provide that.





Given that we mention Youtube is on demand and on the go, you need to hook your audience in through an unconventional method. This could mean using things like clickbaits, optimising to have a comment or reaction to something you do in the middle of the video in the front to entice viewers to find relevance to that comment as well as optimising the title and thumbnails to be relevant to micro trends; issues that happen on a weekly basis that draws a lot more attention. This kind of structure cascades views from a couple of sources; people looking to learn more about a certain microtrends, people prone to clickbaits (everyone is, those who say they isn’t are big fat liars), curiosity as well as give your audience a refreshing take on your brand.



End Tag


It is crucial to garner views and remind people to “click to like, hit the subscribe button and even drop a comment”. This interactivity allows you to engage with your audience and help you be viewed as personable on the internet rather than someone hiding behind a massive brand. End tags also reminds people to show their support for your brand and to stay tuned for new and upcoming message you might deliver.





Description should not be an afterthought, but should be in-lined with your SEO and branding approach. If you are looking to target the market as “Rebel Soda”, then it should be reflected across all platforms. Remember, 7 impressions to get your audience to take in what you are saying. Most importantly, utilise the first 157 characters to draw people in to click to show more of the description. This is where you bait your audience, similar to your thumbnail and the first 5-15 seconds of your video.  Your end part of your description would then be optimised for SEO purposes with the middle used to describe or detail things you mentioned in the video. No matter what you do, do not transcribe your video in your description. This will reduce your watch time and gives you an inaccurate measure of your market.



Playlist it


Classification is an important step in the upload process as playlist draws in crowd from various videos in the list into a funnel for continued watching and engagement. A viewer from Youtube could stumble upon your video and if it is not in the playlist be led to other videos outside your channel. However with it being in a playlist, a viewer will be enticed to scroll through your playlist first to see what he/she wants before venturing to other recommended videos or hitting the search button.



Share elsewhere


A good video irregardless on which platform only works if it taps on mass distribution. Thus, uploading a video only on Youtube and expect it to do well is immature thinking. Creating different shorthand links for various platforms if you want to track which source gives you the most leads. Share it on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and even on Whatsapp. This broad approach also lets you know when they are coming in so you can schedule either your distribution or if you need to schedule your video to an earlier or later time entirely.



Transcribe it


Sometimes, we might not be in the most convenient place to watch youtube with the sound on and that is where transcribing is important. Transcribe using Youtube Subtitle allows you to not only give the audience the option to turn it on or off, but also attract an entirely different set of audience from a different language group. This allows you to see if there is a market gap that you are neglecting as well as what different groups want at the end of the day.




How to deal with disruptors in your industry

Business is just like boxing, you must know when to move in for the kill and when to hang back and let your opponent swat flies with their hits. In the age of digital media and VC injections, many upstarts are looking to disrupt the usual way of doing business, particularly in spaces where the barrier of entry was high and the players were few. Taking a lesson from Mayweather and McGregor fight, here are some things you can do to make sure your footprint in the industry stays for generations to come.


Back to Basics

Know who you are and what matters in your business


When a disruptor enters an industry, the idea is to go after the fundamental of how business has been done. Airbnb went after the rigid nature of getting a hotel in the right spot of town for experiential travelers, Uber and Grab disrupts the speed and communication process of Taxi companies, blockchain disrupts the time it takes for loans and payment to get through in banks and McGregor looks to disrupt Mayweather 49 win streak with his reach and his heart.


As an operator, it is important to know how your business process run, stripped down to the basics. For Mayweather, it is his defensive speed and reach that has prevailed thus far. Pacquiao brought the fight to him, but Mayweather dodge it like no tomorrow. McGregor seemingly has a slight upper hand with more reach, but fail to land accurately and that is what caused him the match.


Similarly, you need to know how your business is making money and what glaring handicap you have (every business has one, you just need to know how to defend against it). If what disruptors are going after is not your handicap, then it is not your fight. It is business as usual until their VC injection wears out. If it is your handicap, then it is about turning the issue on its head and seeing if there is indeed a new way to do things, maybe even absorb the lessons from your disruptor to remain competitive.



You know the pace of innovation of your industry, stick to it


Disruptors always aim to hit fast and hit hard, thus lacking the usual foresight of business in the next 5-10 years, let alone 20 years. There will be a few exception to the rule but even then it is a castle in the sky. As an established company, you have more realistic projection and plans to either diversify or go deeper into an industry based on more information compared to a Tech company looking from the inside into this industry. The idea is to let them make mistakes while learning the trade, similar to how McGregor transition from MMA to Boxing. Let them take the fight to you and when they are weary (or run out of VC injection), knock them out or see if it is a worthy opponent that you would like to acquire (you never know what gems you might uncover to improve the state of your business).



Whose Turf are you on?

This is your wheel house, let them take the fight to you


McGregor has always benefited from being light and quick on his feet in the Octagon, but not so much when your opponent is a master on his turf and the literal king of the ring. If the match was set in an Octagon and all MMA rules apply, McGregor may stand a chance. In your industry, you know what works to your advantage and what mistakes others will make. This is by no means asking you to leave it to chance, but rather understand that since they are bringing the fight to you, you have less to lose than them, thus it is more important to fight intelligently (stay back and keep moving around like Mayweather) and make them desperate while your disruptor looks to gain a foothole as quickly as possible. Desperation is a worthwhile key to look into and it is a Achilles heel for most disruptors.



An understated factor in business, but oh so important


Most disruptors neglect rest to make sure they can make as much advances as quickly as possible but this results in fatigue clouding their judgement. Learn to take your time off and holiday as a way of working on your business, to relax the mind and bring about more creative and innovative techniques to improve the business. Even though your team is stable and resistant to change, most would flock to a charismatic leader who can create the most amount of impact with the least amount of change if the change in direction is delivered in gusto and passion. That is something that runs rampant in start-ups but becomes the norm too quickly, making work dreadful and all over the map. Mayweather stuck to his training regime and yet still rest enough instead of burning the candles out on both ends in order to win like McGregor does. Even before both men stepped into the ring, the match was already decided.



Always be learning

Never ever think you have made it, that is where kings fall


As much as it can be said about being in your own element, you need to keep learning and adapting the business. A business is not a static form, similarly in boxing. The golden age of boxing of hard hitters has come and gone, now is the age of speed and versatility. If social media sales is growing year on year at 10%, you might want to explore video marketing in year 3 or 4. But if it is growing year on year at 20%, then perhaps you want to consider learning the ropes in year 1 instead.

Corporate Videos Are A Waste Of Your Money

In the late 90s and early 2000s, people were obsessed with creating corporate video as this was the epitome of 2 things, that you have made it and that you want to highlight to everyone what you do and who you are. However, Corporate videos are no longer viable for now and the future. Here are 5 reasons not to waste your money.


Variety Of Sources


In the past, getting everyone up to date wasn’t easy. Thus, corporate video serves as a propaganda to get everyone of your company in line at official event, paint a wonderful picture to the public on your company’s achievement as well as show to stakeholders how profitable, humane and wonderful your company is. Nowadays, people get their media from different official sources, from news outlets, internal staff higher up on the ladder, your competitors and even plain old research. As such, pumping videos like this out will not only be a wasted effort in the wind, but also something that is highly inefficient and a pointless exercise. The only reason to make a corporate video is to please your superiors and if that is the case, by all means proceed.



Need For Constant Communication


As more of the 90s kids turns into adults and take up more senior roles, the need for constant communications get even more important. Nowadays, information from yesterday is trash because the world is evolving so quickly. Imagine spending the time and effort to craft out the most emotive and relevant corporate video only to have it invalidated within a week or two. Instead, take the time to do either one of these three things; do something to show your appreciation for everyone you know at the office, use that fund to create either a better party to thank everyone for their efforts or use that budget to create constant communication materials for social media and distribute to staff. As such, your communication will be more relevant, on point and personal to each staff.



Competitive Advantage


When creating a corporate video, you need to dig deep to find out what sets you apart from your competitors (and I sure hope it is not about price). A good production company understands the need to create an environment around a competitive advantage instead of the passe descriptions like “we care about our staff”, “we treat customers as priority” or “we are the best in the industry”. Such vague and unquantifiable factors is already a waste of money if you ever do it. Moreover, if you do allow your competitive advantage to be mentioned, you lose the edge over the market and can easily be replicated throughout the organisation if the C suits see a need for.





Time is the equaliser in all industries and wasting precious time with trivial pursuits will only make you lag behind your competition. In order to be 1 step or even a full stage ahead of your competition, you need to consolidate the time you have and use it efficiently. Gone are the days of working hard and mindless to get to where you want. It is now the age of efficiency and whoever does not grasp this game will simply be licking their wounds later on.

5 steps to going viral

Going viral is the achievement of a lifetime, but is it like striking a lottery or is it something that can be methodically be done? Here is our suggestion on how to take control of your brand and get the recognition it deserves.


Unique Idea


This is the recipe for success. If your audience can predict where your video is going, then it is not a unique idea anymore. A unique video idea must be one that stuns, shock, captivate and make people cry their eyes out. In short, a unique video idea must make the audience stay in the moment, not a second earlier or later. If people can continually stay on the train of thought (see what I did there?), then you have a recipe for success. Great places to start is by seeing videos made in your industries and asking yourself a simple question; How can I do better or different?




In order for a great idea to be widely talked about online, you need to optimise it for the platform. If you are looking to do it on Facebook, please make sure it is 1:1 and not 16:9. If you are doing on Youtube, make sure you have someone do great copy and thumbnails for you to give you the best chance of success. If you take the most luxurious shark’s fin and put it in a hawker centre, it will be seen as inappropriate, not shocking or different. Learn to master the platform and even your regular videos can benefit from it.


Produce it with finesse


There is good video production company and great video production company. Just because the story flows and the language makes sense does not mean it is the best route to go down. Take for instance an interview. A lot of people go into an interview thinking all we need is to get the talent comfortable on camera and say his line, but that is not it. A great production house will look into location, wardrobe, even finding the right talent to appear on screen to give the right feeling on screen. A thoughtful and meticulous production company will even go to the far extend or prepping your talent and even have a teleprompter if it needs to produce the best footage they can.


Tighten it in edit


Most editor just piece things together, a great one knows how to tighten and suspend people’s belief. Even shots that are not the most ideal but reflects the mood by around 70% of the time can benefit from a good editor. Let’s say you have a wonderful interview wide shot of your talent but suddenly someone accidentally bump into the camera or the lighting shifted just slightly on set. A good editor will know that it happens and shift the timing of the montage earlier, crop in if possible, use another camera or even drop that line of dialogue if its value is destroyed by that subtle change. A good editor can separate what he sees on the screen as an editor as well as an audience, giving him the ability to craft a work of art with seemingly little time. It is not that he is flippant in his work or it is too easy for him, but rather because a thousand decisions get made before he arrive at that point.


Distribute on Time


It used to be that the first 4 points were enough for a great TVC but now with so many distractions around, it is even more poignant to ride the trend wave as much as possible. Let’s say you have a video that could benefit from the sudden public outrage about a social issue. Your video will touch on everyone’s raw nerve and be even more impactful if realised on the right time. If realised a day or two later, the impact can be lost. Similarly, it is also important to see what the social climate is like and if it doesn’t add value being released in a controversial social climate, taking a step back is also a good idea.

What type of videos is good for marketing?

In order to do well on social media these days, one must utilise the use of videos due to its high engagement rate and its ability to emulate life unlike most other marketing materials. Here are some types of videos you should consider when creating one for your marketing efforts.


2D Animation


A 2D animation story is a simple way to execute your story because of its versatility and its low equipment cost. A 2D animation can also be adapted in a variety of ways, from short videos to tell what is on sale now, daily motivational gifs to help people get through the day or even tips and tricks for your customers if you are in the service industry. The highest cost in this type of video is time and skill. Once you have your script done, sit down with a couple of 2D Animator and see what they sketch. You will soon find yourself gravitating towards one or two and this is a good starting point. After that, the idea is to find out how long and how much they cost in order for you to decide if they are the ones you want to work with.


Real life shooting


Deciding to go down this path is a perilous one because 1 purchase can very quickly lead to the next and the next. For starter, get a DSLR or mirrorless camera that can shoot video. This is a good entry point due to its compact size and lower price point compared to other video camera. Next, invest in an all purpose lens like a 24-70 f2.8. This allows you to creatively capture a wide variety of shots with good and poor lighting. Lastly, get a monopod and a gimbal. These 2 combination will open many doors for you to shooting. The monopod should then be able to lock down so you can double it up as a tripod whereas your gimbal double up as a slider.


Stop motion


If you grow up loving Wallace and Gromit, look no further. Stop motion can be implemented in a variety of fashion, from a full scale claymation like Chicken Run to simpler things like a 2D drawn character in your story. For stop motion, keep it simple with a prime lens like a 50mm (don’t take a wide angle because your sides will warp and don’t get a telephoto unless space is a luxury for you to shoot). Equip it with a DSLR camera, a LED panel and a tripod and you are set!


Royalty Free


If you are not sure which methods to go with, how about getting royalty free or royalty paid video clips and edit it together? This way, it allows you to see what your market and audience want before plunging into doing something like acquiring equipments.

The different types of YouTube ads

Previously, we touched on the approach for Facebook marketing and now we will talk about how you should go about buying your youtube ads for maximum traction and responsiveness. First we will touch on each of the types of ads you can purchase before explaining how best to optimise it.


Display Ads


Display ads are ads that are shown on the top right enticing audience to click your video as the next one to play. In order to optimise it for the audience, make sure you have a customised and eye catching design, followed by a short duration and a roll off the tongue title.


Overlay ads


Overlay ads are similar to web banners, they are placed in highly visual area to tap on the attention of that space. For ads like this, make sure your copy is short and interesting enough to captivate, not long and descriptive.


Skippable video ads


Most people assume that if you were to make a youtube video, it doesn’t matter on the formats because you can simply choose anyone for either of the formats. This is however far from the truth. For skippable ads, you have your audience attention for 5 seconds. Make it absolutely clear that you grab the maximum attention during that time; be it with a voiceover and a still shot of your logo or with an interesting comment or statement taken from the middle of your youtube video story and inserted in front to entice people to stay. The former will simply be blatant advertising; see an opportunity with no escape and maximise it. If it is the latter, you need to know what topics and comments you need to say in order to entice them to stay on instead of clicking away. Mastering this means you have hooked your audience in and they willingly decided to continue watching your ad.


Non skippable ads


Just because it is non skippable does not mean that you will definitely get your audience attention. A savvy audience can simply refresh the page, close the tab or switch a tab. A non skippable ad must be short, precise with brand recognition. Unlike your tvc ad of 30 seconds, you now have only 3 seconds to educate, entice, mention your brand and have a call to action. If you need to pick 2, pick enticing and a call to action. Education and brand recognition can be done in person or in your store when they are enticed enough to take action.


Bumper Ads


Bumper ads are like the small version of the non skippable ads together with the benefits of a skippable 5 seconds ad. Your ad needs to be short, precise and deliver an emotional story in 6 seconds. If given a choice, go for the skippable ads but format it such that the education portion is behind after 6 seconds and the first 6 seconds is optimised like a bumper ad. Leave the bumper ads to big brands that do this simply for brand recognition and awareness.


Sponsored cards


Short snippets of the video will appear nearing the end of the video to entice you to click away and see something else related but on another channel. This is a good way to market if your product or service is widely used or known in the general public. This allows you hitch on the social conversation people are talking about and maximise the conversion efforts into sales. Best used during marketing campaign at the maximum height of the awareness to maximise the effort and dollars that goes into it.


Do I need to buy facebook ads first?

Now that you have dip your toes into the social media marketing space, the question now becomes if you should spend money on distribution. Here, we will be listing out each individual distribution package for Facebook and how each is suitable for different parts of your marketing efforts.


Boost Page

You have set up a separate Facebook Page for your brand and you have gotten all your friends and families to like your page and stay updated on your brand. What is the next step then? The next step would be to broaden your reach to your second degree or third degree of friends. Facebook allows you to do so systematically with options to select age range, gender and interest to target your post. Do this only if you have already have daily content going out so that your audience do not click onto a seemingly empty page and expect them to like or keep up with your happenings.


In order to increase the chances of liking your page or buying from you, you can install 3rd party applications on Facebook that turns your Facebook page into a squeeze page for you to get data out from your consumers in exchange for a voucher, a book or a trial of some sorts.

Boost Post

This is where the most amount of money is wasted. Too many people boost post to get more people to see what they write when it should be posting your page and then getting those who like your page to engage with you. Only when a post has above average engagement should you even decide to boost post. Think of boost post as a multiplier technique. Only when something is doing well should you click that button. How do you know what should be chosen as the post to boost? Check out your insights and find out which post does 30% or more better than the rest. For those that falls between 15-30%, it is most probably due to optimised image, comments, time and day of posting as well as good titles. Use those lessons to explore what kinds of content you should create more of for your audience.


Your sponsored post should do 2 things, either generate a controlled action on your website or lead them to like your facebook page. Either way, you need an active action from your customer or you will be wasting your money.


The biggest mistakes most marketers do is that they will buy ads in order to raise the awareness of a campaign or an event or if the post has less than expected engagement compared to other traditional media. They will then attempt to buy ads to boost the numbers, resulting in an ineffective marketing campaign. Remember, the bulk of your engagements should come from your fans who like your page, not from people who you buy their views from.



Boost Video

This is somewhat similar to SEM. You create a great marketing videos and boost it to get more and more customers to see and call you, email you or order from you. Never should you boost a video just to get engagement because that is a waste of money and time. Videos has higher engagement rate on Facebook and if you are boosting and ineffective video that you already pay money to make, then it is seemingly pointless and digging a deeper hole in your pocket.

White Rabbit turns red

On the 18th of August, Wildfire Entertainment transformed the famous White Rabbit chapel restaurant into a halloween opening act for one of their corporate dinner parties. This opening act includes a zombie schoolgirl, a vampire, a mummy, a witch and a she-wolf. All in all it was a startling start to the evening and definitely one of the shows to get since Halloween is a couple of months away.


Here is the highlights for the event


What we achieved

In order to showcase the acts for their prospective clients, Wildfire Entertainment requires a portfolio that showcase the performance from an audience position for clients to see what the performance will be like as well as a highlights video of the performance to make clients in the exploration stage shift towards the decision stage a lot quicker. Here is a static from another performance we shot sometime back.


The objective for this video is to showcase great dance backed up by awesome costume.


Since each character is unique, it was also key to ensure it is a montage with close up of each dancer rather than just a few selected dancers or a wide shot of all of them.





The make-up was also painstakingly done and is usually not showcased enough at the events so we took the liberty to maximise its scary nature in the video.


What we can improve

Filming an event like this requires us to set up quickly and disappear without a trace. This usually becomes a problem when spaces are too narrow resulting in unsatisfactory static shot. In the future, we will be exploring bring a gopro with us for the static to see if we can mount it somewhere to still achieve the centre shot as much as possible.

The other possible problem could be the drastic lighting colour change and strobing. This could be better mitigated if we were able to do a full dress rehearsal with lighting and audio to get the best footage.




The 3 layers of a video

Just like any form of communications, videos needs to be properly piece together to ensure that the right message get delivered on all levels. Here are the 3 layers a video must have in order to communicate effectively to your audience.



What is said

This is the layer most of us are concerned about. We flood it with features and benefits of your products and showcase our product and services in the best light imaginable. However, this is similar to a person that walks up to you and keep talking about himself and when you are bothered by him, decides to walk away. Is this the best way you want your brand to be represented by? A company that is out of date and only interested in pushing your interest onto other people?



What they want

With a little bit of training and observation, you can usually find out what your customers want and this is where the sweet spot of marketing takes place. If you can figure out what benefits your customers want and transform your features into benefits for them, then it becomes easier for your customers to say yes. This is liken to a guy who walks up to you and ask you what is your favourite drink, offers to get you want and focus his time and asking you questions and responding appropriately. But is this the best you can do in terms of video?



What they are embarrassed to say

This is where nirvana is at. If you are able to figure out what your customers are feeling and not just thinking, you can persuade them more easily. Think of all the great revolutions and events that has ever happened. It has always been centred around a person who is able to tug on people’s heartstrings. Think Trump, you will see a middle class white Americans that is dissatisfied with how the country is and opt for a drastic change. Think feminism and you will see females that feels ostracised, ignored and underserved by the community. Think black benefits, and you will see unjust treatment between the white and the blacks. Remember firstly that the message is about them and then you need to address or cooperate with the feelings they are having in order to align them with your common goal. Liken this to a guy who walks up to a woman to save her from a boring or awkward situation. She did not say it, but she jolly well feel uncomfortable.